720 A+/PC Technicians

A+/ PC Technician Terminology

Don't forget to add your initials at the end of your submission in parenthesis (MLO)

1. Mother Board - This is also known as the system board or main board. It is a large, flat board which allows everything inside the system unit to connect and communicate with each other.—>9/18sj-Motherboards are useless by themselves. Instead they need to have things connect to it. Items connect to the MB via slots or ports.Their main job is to hold the microprocessor chip. The shape and layout of a MB is called the form factor. The form factor will determine the size of the case. Most MB are standard (or have standard form factors) so that it is more universal for parts. (S. Jones 9/18)

2. CPU or Processor- Located on the microprocessor chip, this is the most important part of a computer. It consists of two main parts. The control unit tells the computer how to store data, follow instructions and process information. The Arithmetic-logic unit tells the computer how to perform basic math and logic functions. (not sure who did this first part) The CPU is installed onto the mother board with pins. Not all CPUs have pins to connect, but most do. The pins can be easily bent - so care must be used to correctly line them up when connecting. (MJT - 9/20)

3. Memory-Primary
RAM- RAM or Random Access Memory holds the data and programs the computer is currently processing. RAM is sometimes known as primary storage. RAM is volatile storage, since the information in RAM is lost when the computer’s power is shutoff or disrupted.
ROM- This stands for read-only memory. This is the area where permanent information is stored. The CPU can access this information, but cannot change or add to it.
Disk caching-Disc caching anticipates data needs to improve hard disk performance. It pulls frequently used data from the hard disk to the cache during idle processing time, so data can be accessed directly through memory
4. Memory-Secondary
-Floppy Drives-magnetic
-Hard-disk drives
-CD ROM drives ,DVD Drives-Optical Disks
-RAID, or Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks expand external storage and improve access speed. A panel of connected hard drives is used like one very large disk, storing and duplicating information on multiple disks. Large organizations and Internet servers commonly use RAID.

4. PCI/ ISA/AGP –Expansion slots
PCI- Peripheral Component Interconnect- Bus DesignLocal connection, PnP and can expand
ISA-Industry Standards bus slots 16 bit

AGP- Accerated Graphics Port- Designed by Intel in August of 1997, and the AGP offers a dedicated point to point channel so that the graphics controller can directly access the system memory. The AGP is an advanced port for video cards and 3D accelerators. An AGP channel is 32 bits wide and runs at 66 MHz. (9/18/07, W. Watson)

5. Sound Card – device used to provide high quality audio output. (not sure who did this). The sound card enables the computer to send auditory signals to speakers or other devices attached to the computer. (MJT 9/20)

6. Video card – device used to provide high quality video, provides interface between monitor and computer
A video card is a dedicated card plugged into a slot on the computer's motherboard. Other video options are integrated into the motherboard chipset. ww

7. Power supply- the component in the system that converts the AC current into the DC needed by computer circuitry
AC- Alternating Current- George Westinghouse
DC) Direct current- Thomas Edison
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/edison/sfeature/acdc.html (not sure who did this part)

An uninterruptible power supply can be a good idea - sometimes called surge protectors, it protects the computer
when electrical current varies. (MJT 9/20)

8. USB- Universal Serial Bus- Ipods-flash discs —>sj- very simple and flexible devise system that the operating system supports. It is a single, standard, easy to use way to connect up to 127 devices to a computer. Typically a computer is built with 2 USB ports. However, you can buy a USB hub (similar to an electical power strip) where you can plug in several USB connected devices all at once. USB devices can be connected and unconnected at any time - can interchange as needed from "outside" your computer. You don't need to open your computer or add anything within the case. There are 2 types of USB connectors - A & B. A type connect upstream toward computer and B type connect downstream to a device. Once USB connector is inserted the operating system detects the device and if new will prompt to enter the disc driver to be installed. The driver then will only ever need to be installed once. (S. Jones 9/18)

9. Parallell Ports –Connects printers

10. CRT Screen - stands for Cathod Ray Tube. The CRT is a specialized vacuum tube in which images are produced when an electron beam strikes the phosphorescent surface. The screen which is the front of the tube, is coated with tiny dots of phosphor material that glow when electrically charged. Inside the CRT an electron beam moves back and forth across the back of the screen cause the dots to glow which produces the image on the screen. (DMW)

11. PS/2-port that connects the keyboard.
The PS/2 connector is used for connecting a keyboard to a PC. PS/2 comes from the IBM Personal System/2 series of personal computers, with which it was introduced in 1987. ww

12. AT Port-Abbreviation for Advanced Technology which was introduced in 1984, and used by IBM, IBM Compatibles, and IBM Clones. OR Apple Talk Port which is a connection for pictures and videos used in Apple Networks????? This is a guess. mme

13. LCD screen - stands for "liquid crystal display" and is also known as a flat-paneled monitor. These monitors contain special crystals that will create an image when charged. They are usually thinner than traditional monitors and require less power to operate. (DMW)

14. Virus- something that can slow down or hurt your computer

15. CMOS- RAM- This stands for complementary metal-oxide semiconductor chip. This is the area where all the important information needed by the computer is kept 9 what type of devices are included in the system.. The information does not get deleted when the computer is turned off. However, the information can be updated or added upon. 10 year replaceable battery

16. BIOS- basic input/output system-chip where software is permanently store in ROM to boot up the system

The BIOS automatically runs when the computer is turned on. It initializes numerous motherboard components and peripherals, loads the operating system, and then turns control over to the OS. This process is known as the POST. See POST definition on this page. ww

17. Virtual memory - a way to use the hard drive as if it were RAM. Data is stored on the hard drive in a swap file or a page file. (re) It's and imaginary memory area supported by some operating systems. It's and alternate set of memeory addresses. When a program is actully excecuted, the virtual addresses are converted into real memory addresses. (PW)

18. Spyware- When your web browsing is tracked without your approval. This evetually results in slowing down your computer due to the popups and other ads that clog your computer. (SFord)

19. Adware- when you to try out new software while allowing the sponser to track you web browsing. This helps defray the cost of developing new software. The sponser then sells this information to other companies.(SFord)

20. DDR - "Double Data Rate" ((a type of synchronous dynamic random access memory (SDRM)), (1) RAM - 2X bus speed of SDRAM/ 2 words of data per cell, double pumping of data on both the rise and fall of the clock. (DH)

21. SDRAM - Synchronous Dynamic RAM. A type of RAM that is stored on Dimms and synchronized with the system clock. SDRAM runs at the same speed as the system bus. AKA: a faster kind of RAM! mme

22. POST (Power on Self Test) - program contained in the BIOS that checks to see if the system can communicate with the hardware components needed to successfully boot the system. (re)

23. Malware - Malicious software designed to load itself onto your computer without you knowing for purposes of damaging the computer or stealing information. (Jen D.)

24. PC Technician Levels of Service - Level I: Help Desk (password changes, log calls) - Level II: Software support, simple repair or replacement - Level III: Advanced technical support or replacement (LS)

25. Plug and Play - this is function was designed to make adding hardware easier. This is a feature of the BIOS and the Operationg System. It looks at the devices configuration and then forwards that information to the OS. The OS will then use the information to configure the hardware and make it available for use. (re)

26. Word- a string of characters considered a unit, a set of bits larger than a byte. (09/13/2007,
Wendy Watson)

Unless otherwise stated, the content of this page is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License